The Influence of the Thera’s explosion on the history of the Minoan Crete
...Thera’s volcanic eruption sealed the fate of Minoan Crete civilization, as is revealed by correlative scientific evidence, dating both events to 1628BC. However, Thera’s role in the obliteration of Cretan society is severely undermined by a ‘dating discrepancy’, suggesting a 50year interval between events. Mediterranean chronology is determined by 2 arbitrary factors – the analysis of changing pottery styles, and trade links with Egypt. Pellegrino and Marinatos challenge the absolution of this dating form with archaeological evidence – or lack thereof. Excavations at Thera reveal a complete absence of bodies or valuables; signifying the former inhabitants had abundant warning of the imminent eruption, and time to gather precious goods. Doumas’ scientific findings are also in support, with the oxidation of the first pumice stratum, indicating this layer was exposed to air up to 24 months before the eruption. Use of this evidence strongly suggests a much shorter interval between the events. Thus, the feasibility of the Theran eruption demolishing Minoan civilisation can be greatly accounted for. A myriad of scientific evidence worldwide is in support of the relative 1628BC date, including Californian Bristlecone pines, Irish bog oaks, Greenland ice sheets and historical Chinese bamboo strips. These individual pieces of evidence collectively create an indisputable proof that some form of climatic disorder occurred during the 1628BC period...
Archeological Artifacts and Marauding
...The problem of looting of the historically important archeological territories and its artifacts is an old one. It is a vital one nowadays because it has transformed into the devastation of the sites. This incident is common in the many countries and has to be faced accordingly. Archaeologists in the first instance need to engage the public. Hodder (1992) notes a public campaign, in the U.K., to stop the plundering of archaeological sites by treasure hunters. Similarly archaeologists need to make the public aware of the social/cultural significance of the archaeological record and especially aware of the value of remains and artifacts in the context of deposition. Certainly there is a danger of increasing the perceived monetary value but a successful education campaign will demonstrate the scientific and social value of the archaeological complex. The next step in protecting cultural property would be to engage law enforcement and legislative bodies to impress upon them the need to vigorously protect cultural heritage. Archaeologists need to lobby the legislative bodies for law to protect cultural heritage and impress upon the law enforcement agencies the need to police the laws...
Modern archeology: major techniques used for the future site location
...There are a number of methods used for identification of the archeological sites. This paper is going to discuss most important ones implied these days. They are: metal detectors, techniques of grounds survey and geological surveys. For instance geological survey is conducted with the help of various approaches. The two main ones are resistivity and magnetometry. Magnetometry involves the use of magnetometers, which detect differences in the soil indicated by changes in its magnetic field. There are two instruments that can be used in the process: Data from proton gradiometers and proton magnetometers. Readings from gradiometers are the easier of the two to process; they record the readings between two separate detector bottles at either end of a pole held upright by the archaeologist. Inconsistencies in the earth magnetic field under the surface affect the lower of the bottles. Proton magnetometers take readings of the absolute magnetic field at set points on a grid, rather than the difference recorded between the bottles. Heating to about seven hundred degrees Celsius, by kilns or furnaces etc cause the random alignment of magnetic particles to retain the alignment of the earth magnetic field at the time of cooling, or passing the Curie point. It is this course of action that is used to date pottery. The process is not an intrusive one, as the magnetometer is carried along a grid by the archaeologist. It is also relatively quick to conduct, although the data still require processing. For this reason, it is preferred to resistivity when conditions are favourable. Once the readings have been taken, they are converted into a map of the area being surveyed. The map will illustrate any magnetic differences in the form of either a contour map or distinct shading...
Archeology and Planning Policy Guide 16
...The documents abbreviated as PPG16 was created in order to somehow reorganize and consolidate the actions of all the players in the archeological society. Such segments as land owners, planning agencies, contractors, developers and society in general have to come to a agreement in order for the archeological science to freely develop and improve. This document was created in England in 1990 and concerns the following problems: ‘Development plans should reconcile the need for development with the interests of conservation including archaeology… plans should include policies for the protection, enhancement and preservation of sites of archaeological interest.’
And furthermore: ‘Authorities should bear in mind that not all nationally important remains meriting preservation will necessarily be scheduled; such remains and… other unscheduled remains of more local importance may also be identified… as worthy of preservation.’
This last point is pertinent in light of the comments made by Peter Addyman, in a paper given at the Society of Antiquaries of London in February of this year, where he stated that one of the effects of PPG 16 was to allow national agencies to concentrate their efforts – and therefore their funds – ‘on the provision of the background data needed by planners and developers to manage and conserve the archaeological resource.’ The adage that the ‘polluter pays’ is another new development in urban archaeology brought about by PPG 16. In supplying the mechanism for financing by the developer, the costs incurred in the process of assessment, evaluation, excavation and analysis are borne by those who – however benevolent their approach – threaten the aforementioned ‘precious resource’...
Archeological effect on the present and the past
...We must be under no illusions that archaeology is a brand new occurrence , and as Paul Bahn states, from “curiosity about the past seems to be widespread among human beings, and is by no means a new found phenomenon” (Bahn 1996,1). Paul Bahn who is a leading authority in archaeology also claimed that “archaeology has no fixed point of origin”(Bahn 1996, 1). What Bahn was attempting to clarify, was that archaeology did not originate from one particular area, and then branch off to influence other areas. To put it another way, people all over the world thousands of years ago were interested in civilisations that came before theirs. Peter Woodhead further strengthens Bahn’s claim “There have always, of course, been people interested in ancient things”(Woodhead 1985,3). How has archaeology contributed towards the study of the past? Archaeology has been instrumental in bringing about the study of the past, and its contribution in some cases is underestimated. To many people archaeology is purely a technique of digging up mass amounts of soil to unearth ancient artefacts, as Richard Colt Hoare states “merely dug holes in burrows to produce the chief relics at the greatest possible speed” (Harris 1979,15)...